The Great Battle Between Java and Python

Image by Arek Socha from Pixabay

It’s common practise nowadays for software developers to be proficient in more programming languages and libraries that previously. Over the last 10 years, the number of developing languages has grown more than we could have imagined, and all of them are used in the day to day lives of a developer. Python and Java are two examples of recognized, powerful languages due to their efficiency, the multipurpose uses, and automation capabilities. Sometimes, the choice is down to the objectives of your business.

The Similarities of Java And Python

Java, an object-oriented programming language, is older than Python, which has certainly gained popularity in recent years. Java has syntax analogous to C and C++. Python is a high-level readable language with effective memory management. Here is what the two have in common:

  • They are both open-source
  • They have cross-platform support
  • They have an object-oriented approach
  • They employ immutable strings
  • They include extensive standard libraries
  • They are members of the Algol family
  • The compile to byte code
  • There is a huge amount of community support

A Closer Look at Java and Python

The difference in usage statistics

Python has more users with 127,539 websites and is favoured in the IT industry as well as food and drink, electronics and technology, and business and consumer. Java is not far behind with 110,668 users.

Java vs. Python Performance

You will notice that both compile bytecode. On the one hand, Python will compile code at runtime; on the other hand, Java compiles code in advance and distributes the bytecode. Java has a significantly enhanced performance due to a just-in-time compiler, which converts all Java code into native code.

With Python lacking this native coding conversion, Java steams ahead in terms of performance. Python can be sped up through optimized programming and framework implementation, if you were to use Cython for Python coding, you will experience a C++ performance.

Code Readability and Formatting

 Multiple extensions are employed in Java coding, and formatting and reference points are separated into various stages. Python’s coding and formatting are linear, less dispersed and therefore, easier to understand. For this reason, many prefer Python for coding and readability.

Dynamically or Statically Typed

In this area, Java and Python are very different. Java is statically typed, while Python is dynamically typed.

In Java, variable names and their types are clearly stated. There may be an odd exception when you try to assign a wrong type of object to a variable name. On a whole, statically typed languages describe the variable at the time it is compiled. As Python is dynamically typed, it isn’t necessary to declare anything. The container objects in Python can hold any type of object, lists, and numbers. Casting isn’t required, so there is no need to remember the type of object as you retrieve it from the container.

Statically typed languages have a compiler that can carry out numerous verifications and detect bugs early on in the development; unfortunately, this affects its productivity. Dynamically typed languages verify types as they are being executed, so you can code quicker.

Compiled or Interpreted Languages

Your code in Python isn’t compiled into machine language instructions, making it an interpreted language. Java can be compiled or interpreted. Like Python, as a compiled language, Java employs a compiler to convert the code source into machine-language instructions. Interpreted languages have to be parsed, interpreted and executed each time the program runs. The result, a higher cost of running the code.

Mobile Development

This is where Java really takes the lead. Python doesn’t support Android or iOS as an official language. When using Python to develop a quality user experience, it requires more time and effort. Aside from Python’s new microservices, Java is still the favourite language for Android app development.

Java Security vs. Python Security

Python is more than capable of handling a secure application but Java has increased security functionality and environment, and therefore widely used in banking apps. Java permits advanced authentication, cryptography, and access control while accessing private attributes via public setters.

Python permits access to everything, everywhere and any time because it is public. Unlike in Java, you can even delete attributes.

Setting up Java and Python

Python is somewhat a piece of cake in this department. Once downloaded and installed, you can run your code on any command with the assistance of Read Evaluate Print Loop.

Java is tricky and requires more effort. You will need a strong background in object-orientated programming. Many of the simplest tasks require class structure and compilation to run.

Java resources vs. Python resources

It’s more common to see Java being used in large organizations because it is necessary to have more time and more capital to invest. As Python is generally doesn’t require as much capital, it is better for small to medium-sized projects.

The Syntax used by Java and Python

Once again, in this area, the two are quite different. In java, file input/output requires a lot of classes to import; in Python file input/output only requires two lines. Java needs a semicolon at the end of a statement, Python doesn’t. Code won’t work in Java without curly braces, whereas they aren’t needed in Python, however, indentation is needed to enhance code readability. Finally, in Java, you must declare the type of data, which again, isn’t necessary for Python.

As you can see, each can have its advantages and possible disadvantages. Python is easier to both learn and use, and is a user-friendly language. Java is faster and has more advanced security features. It is worth considering the differences between Java and Python as ultimately; it’s what is more suitable for the needs of your company.